The framework within which FINMA acts is specified by the legislator. The legal basis for its activities is the Financial Market Supervision Act, which was enacted by the Swiss parliament on 22 June 2007 and put into effect on 1 January 2009 by the Federal Council.
FINMA acts as an oversight authority over banks, insurance companies, stock exchanges, financial institutions, collective investment schemes, their management and fund management companies, as well as distributors and insurance intermediaries. Specifically, it is responsible for the enforcement of the following financial market acts: the Banking Act (BA) in the banking sector, the Insurance Contract Act (ICA) and the Insurance Supervision Act (ISA) in the insurance industry, the Financial Market Infrastructure Act (FMIA) in the area of stock exchange trading, the Financial Institutions Act (FinIA) for financial institutions, the Collective Investment Schemes Act (CISA) in the fund industry and the Anti-Money Laundering Act (AMLA) in connection with the combating of money laundering.
Since 1 May 2013, the scope of FINMA's competencies has extended beyond the supervised financial sector. Within the framework of its general market supervisory activities, FINMA is required to take action against market abuse, in particular in connection with insider trading and market manipulation.
FINMA is a supervisory authority, whose core task is to check compliance with the acts and ordinances passed by Parliament and the Federal Council. FINMA issues regulations in the form of ordinances and circulars where it is authorised to do so.